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The first of three wars over Kashmir, the Indo-Pakistan War of 1947, ended when the United Nations intervened by establishing a ceasefire line, sending a peacekeeping force, and suggesting the two countries hold a referendum in Kashmir. Unfortunately, the referendum was never done. Moreover after the Indo-Pakistan War of 1947, the state of Kashmir and Jammu sent the government of India a ratified constitution, making the joining of Kashmir with India legal. The Indo-Pakistan War of 1965 was sparked by Pakistan’s military force crossing the established ceasefire line. In retaliation, India crossed the official international border at Lahore. Like the previous conflict, the Indo-Pakistan War of 1965 also ended in mediation from the United Nations, with another ceasefire declared. Although in January 1966, both India and Pakistan agreed to a statement declaring the nations’ intent to carry out their conflicts with peaceful diplomacy, the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971 was caused when Pakistan descended into Civil War. East Pakistan, currently the sovereign State of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, demanded independence from West Pakistan (now, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan). After 10 million refugees of the Civil War fled from East Pakistan into India, India attacked West Pakistani forces in defense of the East Pakistani people. Eventually the independent country of Bangladesh  was created on December 6th, 1971. After the war, Pakistan and India reaffirmed the ceasefire line, officially naming it the Line of Control. In 1974, Kashmir and India established another accord stating Kashmir was a state of India, which Pakistan refused to accept.Between 1971 and 1998, peaceful relations had been somewhat maintained in the conflict, with more emphasis on peaceful diplomatic relations between India and Pakistan. Although this is true, the Kashmir Insurgency in 1989, caused by Islamic militants coming from Afghanistan, was a violent event which encouraged joining with Pakistan or becoming independent. In 1998, after diplomatic meetings, tensions heightened when India and Pakistan began proliferation of nuclear weapons and other modern military devices. The International Community harshly rejected the proliferation of such devices and economically pressured both countries. The tensions were resolved at the Lahore Accords where Prime Ministers of both countries agreed to solve disputes with newfound expediency.While no new wars have been fought over Kashmir as of yet, continuous smaller conflicts have been aroused. In addition to terrorist and militant activities, peaceful movements to free Kashmir from both the rule of India and Pakistan have been erupted, and tensions between the people of Kashmir and their rulers in Pakistan and India have been escalating in recent years.

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