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MBA
(AB)-2016-18

 

A Study to find out the
challenges and opportunities of Biofertilizers in the Baramati region

         

SUBMITED
BY – NITIN ZAGADE

(16020242027)

 

 

SUBMITED TO – Dr. SHUBHANGI SALOKHE

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction

Bio-fertilizer

Bio-fertilizer is a substance which contains live or
latent cells of micro-organisms which are applied to seeds or plants or soils
to fix different nutrients and make available to the plant. There are different
types of bio fertilizers used like Azatobactor, Acetobactor, Azospirrilum, PSb,
KSB etc.

 

Rhizobium

Rhizobium are symbiotic bacteria that fix
atmospheric N gas in plant root nodules and have a mutual relationship with the
host plants. The plant roots supply essential nutrients and synthesized
substance to the bacteria.

Azotobacters

 It is free living
and non-symbiotic N fixing organism that also produces certain substances for
the growth of plants and antibodies to suppress many root pathogens.
Azotobacter can also produce antifungal compounds to kill plant pathogens.

Azospirillum

This is also a N fixing micro organism which is beneficial
for non-leguminous plants. Azospirillum transfers nitrogen enrichment through
production of growth promoting compounds

Phosphate-solubilizing
bacteria (PSB)

Under acidic or calcareous soil conditions, large
amounts of phosphorus is fixed in the soil but unavailable to the plants.
Phosphobacterins can make insoluble P available to the plant.

Vesicular
arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM)

VAM fungi infect 
inside the root. They has special structures known as vesicles and
arbuscules. The plant roots transmit substances to the fungi, and the fungi
helps in transmission of nutrients and water to the plant roots.

Bio-Fertilizer in India

 

 

Major Companies In Bio-Fertilizer Business

1.   
Coromandel Fertilizers

2.   
Hindustan Biotech

3.   
Ajay Biotech

4.   
Tata Rallies

5.   
Saraswati Agro

6.   
International Biotech

7.   
Amar Biotech

8.   
Biostadt

9.   
KVK’s

 

 

Profile of Baramati Taluka

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The total geographical
area (TGA) of Baramati tahsil is 1382 sq. km., which is about 8.80 percent of
TGA of the Pune district. The population of
Baramati as per the census of 2011 is 54,415. among them about 28 thousand
(51%) are male and about 27 thousand (49%) are female.

The
population of baramati is mostly depend on the agriculture for the major income
source. The land of the baramati region is well irrigated because of the Nira
left canal, Nira river and karhamai river.

The
major crops grown in the area are Sugarcane. Jowar, Wheat, Maize, Grapes and
Pomegranate. Among this Sugarcane is the major crop because there are three
sugar factories namely Chatrapati sugar factory in Bhavani-Nagar, Malegaon
Co-op sugar factory Malegaon and Someshwar sugar Factory someshwarNagar.

Along
with that due to the presence of KVK near baramati is helping a farmer through
various new technologies and solutions which is the great contributor in the
agricultural development of Baramati .

Major Crops

Name of Crop

Percent area

Jowar

20

Sugarcane

21.25

Bajara

19.2

Wheat

15.76

Fodder crops

12.71

Oilseeds

2.85

Pulses

3.08

Fruits

4

Vegetables

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

List of Villages in Baramati Tehsil

 

 

Review of Literature

Naidu et al. (2002) recorded the influence of
organic manures, chemical and biofertilizers on growth, yield and economics of
brinjal. They observed that organic manure when applied in conjunction with
Azospirillum yielded greater number of fruits with higher girth over nitrogen
with organic manure.

 It is due to
better mobilization of plant nutrients particularly N and P during later stage
of plant growth. It was also noticed that application of organic manure in
combination with Azospirillum yielded at par with N from organic manure.

 

Sharma (2002) studied the effect of Azospirillum and
different doses of nitrogen on yield of cabbage. The treatments included 3
levels of biofertilizers and 4 levels of nitrogen. Azospirillum application
significantly increased the number and weight of non-wrapper leaves per plant,
head length and width, gross and net weight of head per plant and yield/ha. A
treatment combination of Azospirillum application with 60 kg N/ha resulted in
maximum yields/ha with benefit : cost ratio 2.9.

 

In a study conducted by Devi et al. (2003) on
cabbage, it was revealed among the various treatments including application of
poultry manure and biofertilizers with Azospirillum brassilense could save 25
per cent nitrogen where cost benefit ratio was 1:4.30.

 

Gupta and Samnotra (2004) reported 25 per cent
reduction in nitrogen application when Azotobacter and Azospirillum were used
as the organic source of nitrogen in cabbage.

 

 

 

Research Problem

1.    
Due to excess use of chemical
fertilizers the lands are degrading day by day.

2.    
Environment is getting affected due to
use of chemical fertilizers

3.    
So there is need of find out the
challenges and opportunities for use of Bio-fertilizers.

Objectives

1.   
To find out how many farmers are using
the Bio-fertilizers

2.   
To study farmers awareness about
Bio-fertilizers

3.   
To find out the challenges for use of
Bio-fertilizers in Baramati Region

4.   
What are the opportunities for
Biofertilizer in the study area

 

Background
of the Study

After
Green Revolution in India the agricultural production booms at a very high rate
due to the use of chemical fertilizers and new varieties. From that time the
whole India diverted to the use of chemicals in agriculture and it benefitted a
lot, but it showing the negative impact of that in current situation on
productivity of land, Degradation of land, Quality of produce etc.

But the dependence of
agriculture on chemical uses will harm the agriculture to a greater extent and
loss the soil quality.

For that the Government
of India promoting the use of Bio-fertilizers in agriculture. These
Bio-fertilizers have multiple benefits on the soil and it is also easy to use
and cheaper in price.

These Bio-fertilizers
are naturally occurring in nature and used 100 years ago as a naturally
occurring manure, In ancient times farmers were using but they don’t know the
composition but they use to apply in field and they known its benefits.

But in recent years the
agriculture is went towards chemicals which are synthetic and prepared in the
chemical laboratories, it increased a yield but in recent 10 years it is
showing negative impact on different factors like soil, environment, human
health, animal health and  on future
growth also.

Due to that the farmers
are again interested in Bio-fertilizers as a option for synthetic chemical
fertilizers.

 

Research Methodology

 

The study includes the
farmers survey against the Awareness, use, problems in Bio-fertilizers use was
carried out in Month of December 2017.

The topic was selected
with the discussion with mentor with the some objectives. Objectives of survey
are to find the awareness and use of Bio-fertilizers in the Baramati region.

 

Sources of Data

Primary and Secondary
data is collected to meet the specified objectives of the research

Primary Data

Primary data were
collected from the farmers of different villages with the help of Questionnaire.
The questions like Land holding, Crops grown, Bio-fertilizers using or not,
reasons for not using  of
Bio-fertilizers, which Bio-fertilizers used, Reasons, Benefits of
Bio-fertilizer using, Awareness of Bio-fertilizers etc.

 And also asked for their suggestions on
Bio-fertilizers and what needs to be done to improve the use of
Bio-fertilizers.

Secondary Data

Secondary data about
Bio-fertilizers were collected from different websites, government websites,
pages and research papers to know the sector very well and to see the what  happened in the recent years.

 

 

 

Sampling Method

For the research
Baramati region has been selected and from Baramati taluka 10 villages has been
selected and from each village 15 farmers were selected randomly for the study.

 

Sample size

From the Baramati
region randomly 10 villages has been selected and from each village 15 farmers
selected on random basis.

So total sample size is
150 farmers for the study as a representative sample.

Villages Selected

 

Malad

Niravagaj

Karhati

Pimpli

Mekhali

Dorlewadi

Malegaon

Gokhali

Gunvadi

Supe

 

 

Research Method

A structured
questionnaire were prepared with the help of faculty mentor to record the
information given by the farmers . Questionnaire was filled by myself as per
information given by the farmers.  

 

Tools used for Analysis

1.    
Microsoft Excel
for entry of Data

2.    
Use of different
charts and bars to show the results.

 

 

Questionnaire

 

Data Analysis

In baramati region near
about 80% land under the use of chemical fertilizers and remaining 20% is under
the use of Bio-fertilizers.

Land Holding of Farmers

Name

Land
Holding

Marginal

5
Ha

 

 

 

The graph shows that the
maximum farmers having land holding of small (less than 1 Ha) i.e. 55%

45% farmers having
medium land holding i.e.2-5 Ha.

The land holding is
more per farmer in the baramati region due to the very well irrigation
facilities, market availability, due to this farmers having more land holding.
These large farmers are come under the innovators in rogers model so these
farmers can use Bio-fertilizers in the future.

 

 

Users and Non-users of Biofertilizers

 

 

It shows that there are
only 23% farmers are using Bio-fertilizers which are medium and large farmers.

And 77% farmers are not
using Bio-fertilizers because of many reasons like non awareness, Availability
etc.

But there are good
opportunities for fertilizer companies to cater to this segment.

 

 

 

 

 

Which Companies Bio-fertilizers Using

 

 

 

In baramati region
maximum farmers using the Bio-fertilizers of KVK Baramati because the maximum
awareness made by them and every farmer is connected with KVK.

The other companies
having very little share in Bio-fertilizers.

Baramati KVK is
providing guidance along with Bio-fertilizers that’s why the farmers are more
using the KVK given products .

 

 

 

 

Reasons for Using Biofertilizers

 

 

 

 

Many farmers are using the
Bio-fertilizers because of the high yield they are getting by using
Bio-fertilizers, some farmers are using because they are getting at lower
prices than the chemical fertilizers, some are using because it is convenient
in using and many farmers has given the other minor reasons

When they use
Bio-fertilizers the Bio-fertilizer fixes the atmospheric nitrogen, fixes the
phosphate with minimum cost and increases yield upto 30%.

Due to this 15% farmers
are using because of higher yield.

 

 

 

Major crops in which Bio-fertilizers are used

 

 

 

 

In baramati region
major Bio-fertilizer use is in the Sugarcane crop due to maximum farmers are
growing the sugarcane and it is showing good results in the sugarcane crop.

Second most use in the
pomegranate and on small scale use in the jowar, maize and grapes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Awareness of  Bio-fertilizers

 

 

In baramati region
awareness of Bio-fertilizers is 63%. Still there 37%  farmers are unaware about Bio-fertilizers.

Because many farmers
are Illiterate , they don’t have access to new technologies or practices coming
in

So in this region need
of conducting awareness campaigns.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How farmers get Aware of Bio-fertilizers

 

 

In this region major
awareness made by the KVK Baramati, Biggest contribution in the Biofertilizer
is made by the KVK Baramati.

In some amount dealers
and co farmers are making awareness among the fellow farmers.

It is showing that KVK
is working very well in Bio-fertilizer sector

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reasons for not using Bio-fertilizer

 

 

There are many reasons
among the farmers for not using of Biofertilizers.

The main reason is
availability in the nearby areas with the dealers . If the Bio-fertilizers are
available with the near dealers farmers are ready to use it.

Another major problems
are No awareness among the farmers and some farmers are saying it is not giving
any results.

And few farmers are
saying the prices of Bio-fertilizers are very high and it is not giving results
up to the mark.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Summary and Conclusion

 

In this region near
about 40% farmers having Medium and Large land holding (2-5 Ha and More than 5
Ha), It shows that there is greater opportunity for development of Bio-fertilizers
business in this region.

 

In this area only 23%
of farmers using the Bio-fertilizers on their field, and the main reason for
the non using is Lack of awareness, Unavailability in near by dealer store etc.

 

Out of the farmer who
are using maximum farmers are saying that they are using because of the good
results and less price

 

Some figures are very
surprising like awareness of bio-fertilizers, 63% farmers are not aware about
the bio-fertilizers use and its advantages.

 

The major share in Bio-fertilizer
use is of the sugarcane growing farmers,

 

The Bio-fertilizers of
the KVK Baramati are the most used Bio-fertilizers in this area because of
availability and guidance given by the KVK Baramati.

 

The many farmers are
not get convinced about the advantages of Bio-fertilizers, their perception about
Bio-fertilizers is that it acts very slowly and not give the good results.

 

If the farmers get
bio-fertilizers available easily they are ready to use the Bio-fertilizers.

 

If the companies do the
extension activities for promotion of Bio-fertilizers there will be greater
scope for the Bio-fertilizer Industries.

 

The promotional
activities like Method demonstration, Result demonstration, Farmer meeting,
focused group discussions etc.

 

The opportunities for
Bio-fertilizer industries are increasing due to the coming trend of Organic
farming. For organic cultivation many farmers are going for use of
Bio-fertilizers

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