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Question One

One should study Operations Management for the
following reasons:

·        
It equips one with
the knowledge of how goods and services of an organization are produced.

·        
Operation management
is vital to any organization. This is because it is integrated with every other
business function within the organization.

·        
It basically teaches
students on what Operation Managers do in an organization.

·        
Operation
management is also a very dear part of any business. (Stevenson)

Question Two

The four people who have contributed to the theory and
techniques of operations management are:

·        
W. Edwards Denning.

·        
Henry Ford.

·        
Frank and Lillian
Gilbreth.

·        
Frederick Winslow
Taylor

Question Three

·        
W. Edwards Denning

Was an engineer and physicist. He used methods of
statistics to analyze manufacturing processes. He was one of the pioneers Japan’s
high quality manufacturing and control in the years after world war. His methods
of work involved workers in decisions.

 

 

·        
Henry Ford

He founded and created the Ford Motor Company is the
U.S. He first used the method of moving assembly line in the production of Model
T, here, the unfinished Model T was moved from one station to another by use of
a conveyor from one assembly point to another.

·        
Frank and Lillian
Gilbreth

The two were a husband and wife engineering duo. The
two sectioned the workers hand motions into 17 separate parts, calling them ‘therbligs’.
They also advanced studies in work measurement.

·        
Frederick Winslow
Tylor

He was an American Mechanical Engineer. Also known as
the ‘father/master of scientific management’. He used scientific techniques to
recruit, select and train workers and providing solutions to industrial
problems (Chand).

Question Four

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Question Five

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Question Six

The three basic functions of a firm are:

·        
Production of
goods and services. Involves creation of products in mass quantity depending on
the customer base of a firm.

·        
Marketing. This
involves creation of need for the consumers, letting them know that the
relevant products are available and selling the products to the consumers.

·        
Financing and
accounting. This function fundamentally oversees the funding for other
operations and monitoring the firm’s economic health (Jacobs).

 

 

 

Question Seven

The ten strategic operations management decisions are:

       
i.           
Design of goods
and services;

It outlines the necessities for operations. The
product design governs quality, tolerance and availability of needed human
resources.

     
ii.           
Managing quality

It regulates the products’ standards as per customer’s
prospects. It lays down policies and measures to achieve the customer’s quality
expectation.

   
iii.           
Process and
capacity design

Measures the quality of products, assets, technical
know-how and inputs made by the organization.

   
iv.           
Location strategy

Is involved with the firm’s proximity to required
inputs and distribution channel. It figures out the firm’s logistics.

     
v.           
Layout strategy

Fuses the firm’s size demands, human resource,
required technology and inventory. It also regulates material and information
flow.

   
vi.           
Human resource and
job design

Deals with employee selection and hiring so that the
needed skills are used as an extensive part of the whole organization
production of goods and services.

 

 

 

  vii.           
Supply chain
management

Sets guidelines on what is to be brought as input,
where from and why in integration with the organization’s plan.

viii.           
Inventory
management

Involves decisions on production stock of the firm. Deals
with meeting customer satisfaction requirements and production schedules.

   
ix.           
Scheduling

Aids to set and bring to life the short and long term
schedules of the firm and use the available resources to fully reach customer
needs.

     
x.           
Maintenance

It takes into account the firm’s human resource, size
and production loads for consistency in the production process (Guy).

Question Eight

Areas significant to improving labor productivity are:

·        
Using available
technology, skills and knowledge well.

·        
Improving the
skills of labor.

·        
Using labor with
more commitment.

·        
Better use of
capital.

Question Nine

Monitoring of productivity rate is a sure way to assess
whether a nation is able to deliver and increase her people’s living standards.
Improving productivity in capital, labor and management of resources is the
only way that a country can improve the living standards of her people.

The economy of United States changes inputs to outputs
with an increase of approximately 2.5% annually. The increase is due to a
fusion of labor available (10% of 2.5%), capital invested (38% of 2.5%), and
management of resources (52% of 2.5%) (BLS).

Question Ten

Measurement problems that occur when measuring productivity
are:

·        
Difference in
quality of productivity.

·        
Influence of
external elements.

·        
Lack of accurate
units of measuring productivity.

Question Eleven

Mass customization is the ability of a firm to be able
to produce a variety of goods and services in order to precisely meet the needs
of a consumer without weigh on production costs. Rapid product development acts
as a basis of aggressiveness in the economy. The two depend on an individual
firm being swift. The latter brings about clashing since managers cannot simply
alter designs or inputs in the production of goods and services. They however
use the tools of management such as technology and pacts to have more agility.

Question Twelve

Reasons for difficulty in improving productivity in
the service sector include:

·        
It is hard to
assess for quality of service.

·        
It is equally hard
to industrialize or computerize service.

·        
The service sector
fundamentally involves rigorous labor.

·        
Most services are
performed by specialists especially for ones that involve intellect.

·        
Most services in
the sector are aimed on special personal traits.

Question Thirteen

·        
Taco bell used a
well-organized plan for precooked ground beef, cutting 8 seconds off the period
needed to prepare tacos.

·        
It utilized energy
saving grills that conserved up to 300 million gallons of water and 200 million
kwH of electricity.

·        
It changed the
management schedule of a supervisor from 1:5 to 1:30.

Question Fourteen

a)     
National economy

The productivity rate increased 1.5% as labor per hour
increased by 1.5%.

b)     
Manufacturing
sector

Productivity rate reduced by 4.4% as unit labor costs
increased by 4.8% in the third quarter.

c)     
Service sector

Productivity rate increased by 3.0% in the third
quarter of 2017 with unit labor costs reducing 0.2% percent.

 

 

 

 

 

References

1.      Bureau of Labor Statistics. “www.bls.com.”
April 2017. ww.bls.com. 29 January 2018.
2.      Chand, Smriti. Your Article Library. n.d. Web
Article. 29 January 2018.
3.      G.Y.F,  young
finance guy blog. July 2015.  29
January 2018.
4.      Jacobs, F. Roberts. Operations and Supply Chain
Management. Irwin, 2010.
5.      Stevenson, William J. Operations Management. Irwin/McGraw
Hill, 2008.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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