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Phosphorous  (P) is one of the most important mineral nutrient
in agricultural systems, generally the second most limiting nutrient for plant
production. P sources come from rock and volcanic ash. During weathering rock-bound
P pool decreases and enters soil, plant, microbial, and aqueous pools and
incorporated into organic compounds. Phosphorus in soil varies with depth and
is the result of climatic ,Biotic, and landscape processes that interact over
time in the parent material. With the increasing population in the world and
changes in diets  are putting further
pressure on the P demands, as agricultural production will have to increase
further to meet food demand. For that continuous supply of agricultural inputs
are essential. Among them phosphorous containing fertilizer will create high
demand. P reserves in the world depleting in a higher rate (Cordell and White.,
2011). So the P reserves in soil should be effectively use in agricultural need
to change the current system as a solution for P scarcity.

Phosphorus in
soil exists in different forms. Simply they are plant available form or soluble
P, organic P, Primary P type minerals, secondary compounds and P sorbed to
mineral surfaces. The removal of P from soil occurs mainly due to plant uptake,
leaching, runoff and soil erosion (Kruse et al., 2015). Excessive losses of P
from agricultural systems to surface water can accelerate eutrophication and
degrade water quality. Wet-zone of Sri Lanka  is an economically and environmentally
important area which contribute considerably for the agricultural productivity.
Moreover areas such as Nuwara Eliya have been subjected for focus area for
environmental concern due to intensive vegetable cultivation. For the last
fifty years vegetables growers in Nuwara Eliya have been adding very much more
chemical fertilizer without considering crop requirement ( wijewardena and Amarasiri
., 1990 ; Marikar et al., 1996). As a result accumulate P in surface horizon.
Nuwara Eliya soils are highly polluted with P and would thereby pollute the
water bodies downstream. This may cause eutrophication which is one of the most
discussing problems related to environment nowadays.

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Globally, existing
estimates of soil total P stocks are very uncertain because they are derived
from scattered data, with large gaps over many areas of the earth. Here, we
derive spatially clear estimates and distribution of stocks of total P and available
P in vegetable grown sub catchment in Nuwara Eliya, Sri Lanka. Here we present 4 map of total soil P stocks and available
P stocks, in the 0–30 cm and 30-60 cm layer, over vegetable
land use sub catchment in Nuwara Eliya. There are concerns related to the
long-term security of supply of P fertilizers and a need to understand and
monitor the P-stocks in soils. knowing the spatial distribution of soil P is
important because it enables the evaluation of ecosystem and agricultural productivity,
environmental quality and the management of biodiversity .Moreover the scientific
society can extend their new innovative measures to enhance the solubility of
different pools of P in soil and make them available for plants by using effective
soil methods. Ultimately that will help the concept of sustainable Agriculture. 

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