Site Loader
Rock Street, San Francisco

Introduction:Civil disobedience is a refusal of citizens to disobey a law of the state, command of the government or any rule of an occupying international power. It is usually a nonviolent resistance against an authority, and it has been historically a powerful tool in democratic countries to influence governments by their people for various reasons.Japan:1: What were the origin and causes of civil disobedience in that country?In history, civil disobedience in Japan can be seen on a massive scale in opposition of Japanese to the 1960 Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan. Signed first in 1952 at San Francisco Presidio, the Security Treaty was amended on January of 1960 between the US and Japan in Washignton. Initially, this treaty contained provisions that permitted US to act for maintaining peace in East Asia and also use its power on Japanese domestic quarrels but then this later part was deleted in the amended version of treaty in order to bring both the countries to equal footing. The main purpose of the treaty was to ensure the cooperation between the two countries, so that their safety is ensured. This required military presence of U.S in Japan. In addition, this treaty also had provisions on further international and economic cooperation. This treaty has also lasted longer than any other alliance between two great powers since 1648 Peace of Westphalia. This Security Treaty was the first treaty to form the basis of Japan’s security relations with the United States, and it was signed after Japan gained full sovereignty at the end of allied occupation. This security pact of 1951/52 was considered for revision in 1959 and the issues started when it was submitted to Diet for ratifications. It became a controversial issue in United States-Japan relations and violence erupted in-out by the leftist opposition to prevent its passage. Since the treaty of 1960 required US military’s presence in Japan, a central issue of this military presence was the concentration of troops on the small prefecture of Japan, Okinawan. Due to this, the residents of Okinawan felt that the military is a burden on their land. Another issue was the noise and environmental pollution produced by US forces in Japan. Tourism in the Okinawan region was severely disturbed. Furthermore, the big issue was the criminal acts committed by US military men in the region. For instance, the child molestations and rapes. Also, this treaty was mainly opposed because of the argument that article 6 of this treaty threatened the sovereignty of Japan; according to this article, US was allowed to use military forces and facilities deployed in Japan for combat purposes other the defense of Japan.2: How the events took place? Most important one?Bilateral talks on revision the security pact of 1951 had already started in 1959 and the new Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan was singed in 1960. This revision of security pact and transformation into the treaty was opposed by Japenese vehemently. Finally, the ratification of security pact 1951 was approved by the House of Representatives but Japanese Socialist Party deputies boycotted the lower house session and prevented the Liberal Democratic Party from entering the chamber; they were forcibly removed by the police. Massive demonstrations and riots by students and trade unions followed. The prominent events during this civil disobedience was the prevention of scheduled visit of President Dwight D. Eisenhower to Japan and the forced resignation of Prime Minister Nobusuke Kishi, who was succeeded by Hayato Ikedo.3: What relation and impact movement of civil disobedience in that country had with the democracy?As soon as Japan gained sovereignty from allied occupation, the security pact of 1951/52 was signed to form Japan’s security relations with  the United States. This was amended and turned into the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan in 1960, which sparked outrage and civil disobedience. The civil obedience of 1960 was massive and was a proof that Japanese were serious about the sovereignty of their country. The resignation of Prime Ministers of Japan is an evidence that democracy was in action in the country and the impact of people was present. When the Security Prime Minister Nobusuke was forced to sign amidst the protests and oppositions against the treaty. Also, In 2006 agreement between Japan and United States governments, it was decided to move MCAS Futenma from Okinawan to Guam, but this decision received little support, and later Hatoyama resigned, stating that he failed to fulfill one of his promises. There were also impacts on small scales. For instance, the massive awards that resulted from filing of lawsuits against environmental and noise pollution caused by U.S forces in Japan. There were apologies from U.S officials for the crimes committed by U.S personnel in Japan. There was also, albeit as late as 2006, an agreement to move the MCAS Futenman from Okinawan to Guam. Despite the massive opposition, the treaty was not repealed because of its benefits for the Japan overall. There were both security and economic benefits for Japan. Japan never spent more than 1% of its GDP on military expenditures. Even according to a 2007 Okinawa Times poll, 73.4% of Japanese citizens appreciated the mutual security treaty with the US and the presence of the USFJ, so it can be clearly seen that, though there were concerns against the treaty, there was support for the treaty/agreement; therefore, the democratic impact was not revolutionary.Israel1: What were the origin and causes of civil disobedience in that country?Zo Artzeinu is an example of civil obedience in Israel. This was right-wing national political prostest movement created and led by Shmuel Sackett and Moshe Feiglin in Israel to block Israeli land concessions to the Arabs in the 1990s, especially the Oslo Accords. This civil disobedience movement was intended to be completely nonviolent and comprised of road blockages, as well as other forms of civil obedience that were adapted from civil rights movement in the U.S. This civil obedience started because Israeli people realized that the government of Yitzak Rabin was selling Israel to the Arabs and pushing the country towards the war. These people wanted to continue the goals of Kahane for a more Judaic and secure Israel led with the “authentic Jewish values.” 2: How the events took place? Most important one?This movement was established in December of 1993 when the Knesset of Israel banned the Kach party movement in Israel. Feiglin and Sackett, not agreeing with Kahane’s son Rabbi Binyamin Ze-ev Kahane’s militant approach, proceeded to have a peaceful protest to achieve their goals. Zo Artzeinu supported demonstrations against the government of Yitzik Rabin in summer of 1995, but the leaders of the movement were arrested and accused of inciting revolt among settlers. Later, large demonstration took place in September of 1995 and about 50 people were injured. Yitzak Rabin was later assassinated in November of 1995 and his assassinator, Yigal Amir, was later found to have links with Kach, Zo Artzeinu and Eyal Group. Binyamin Elon, the Zo Artzeinu leader, stood for elections in March 1996 and gained a Knessed seat in the May general election. The most important event was when Sackett and Feiglin in 1998, moved on to establish the Manhigut Yehudit, Jewish Leadership, faction with the Likud party. Feiglin later ran for the leadership of the Likud part. This faction later grew. Other Zo Artzeinu members, however, joined Israel Beiteinu in 1999.3: What relation and impact movement of civil disobedience in that country had with the democracy?This civil obedience movement in Israel resulted in support for the cause of establishing an Israeli state based on Jewish values and identity without religious or secular coercion. As the government of Yitzak Rabin was noticed by people to be cooperating with the Arabs and putting Israel at an unstable position of war,  this civil disobedience movement created a wave of awareness among people to stand up for opposition against the government and work for their state. Yitzak Rabin, the head of government, was also assassinated during the time of this civil disobedience with the assassinator known to have connections with Zo Artzeinu. This movement later resulted in the formation of Manhigut Yehudit, Jewish Leadership, faction within the Likud party. This directed the work of this movement towards its involvement in the elections. This faction further grew with time. Feiglin participated in elections and his votes increased in subsequent elections, reflecting the change in mindset of the people towards the cause that Feiglin was struggling towards.

Post Author: admin

x

Hi!
I'm Velma!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out