History Extended EssaySubject Area: History Extended EssayTitle: The Rwandan Genocide and the JustificationsResearch Question / Questions: To what extent could the actions of the foreign countries that have contributed in the Rwandan genocide be justified? To what extent does the International response to it, have a positive and a negative impact to it?”.Word Count: Table of Contents:Page 3The Introduction to the TopicPage 6France’s Involvement with the GenocidePage 8Belgium’s Involvement with the GenocidePage 10The United States’ Involvement with the GenocidePage 12Was the International Response Justifiable?Page 15The Conclusion to the TopicThis is academically worthy of study because this topic that I have chosen is relatable to a world problem that seeks an answer, but not necessarily a solution to the problem itself.This research question opens many doors and raised many eyebrows since everyone would have a different view and a say in the topic. It would make the readers think more about it, and many opinions would be divided.The Introduction to the Topic:Before the UN has been founded, there were many plans on how to launch it. It was first thought of and had an actual physical plan for it at around 1939, with the support of the United States State Department. The name of the “new world organization” was “coined by” the U.S. President at that time, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, just 2 years after the concrete plan was assembled, in 1941. So, the United Nations, or possibly the UN, is an international organization that was formed and established straight after the Second World War (II). When the UN was founded, it has apparently replaced the League of Nations, since it included more countries and was more organized than the League of Nations. Back in 1945, when the United Nations was founded, there were only around 50 countries who have joined it. Today, there are almost four times that number that are members who are a major part of this organization. Rwanda has joined the United Nations almost after two decades of its establishment, joining and becoming a part of this new organization, back in that time, on the eighteenth of September in 1962. The United Nations took actions when the genocide broke out, by sending out a peace keeping group composed out of 2,548 units that were commanded by a Canadian general called Romeo Dallaire.Romeo Dallaire could not have prevented the genocide or have kept the ceasefire in the country for many reasons, some of them being that his units were very low equipped and outnumbered. Also, he tried to argue about them giving him a larger group consisting of around 4,500 troops who were heavily equipped and are allowed to fire if necessary according to the situation they were in to forcefully stop the killing in Rwanda. However this request was never approved by the United Nations, and they have not given enough to stop the genocide or make the impacts of it less by far. It was considered as a mass slaughter in Rwanda, a small country in the center of Africa, between the “ethnic Tutsi” and the “politically moderate Hutu”. The population difference between these 2 main groups were huge. In 1991, it was recorded that the population in Rwanda was estimated at 7.7 million people, with approximately 90% of them being the Hutu ethnic group, and 9% of them being Tutsi, sparing the last percent on the Twa. However, according to the. The Rwandan Genocide all started in the first few days of April, in the capital of the city in Kigali, and continued for around 100 days while spreading all over the country, and ended in mid-July, as claimed by Luke Walker. During these 3 months, approximately one million people died, with another two million others leaving the country, going to neighboring countries as refugees. The two main groups that were involved in this Genocide in Rwanda were the Hutus and the Tutsis, and between those two major groups, came many differences between them such as how they looked, their jobs, and their intellectuality, according to the Belgian colonizers. “Belgian colonizers classified the two groups, the Tutsi were generally taller, thinner, and more “European” in their appearance than the shorter and stockier Hutus, thus, the Belgians decided they were two separate races, and the Tutsi, due to their looks and dominance in the small Rwandan aristocracy of the past, were the natural “leaders.”” claimed by Yam Prasad Chaulagain. Johnson has claimed that “The Tutsis are thought to have originally come from Ethiopia and arrived after the Hutu came from Chad.” . Furthermore, the “Hutu-Tutsi strife stems from class warfare”, as Johnson believes, also adding that according to the Hutus, the “Tutsis perceived to have greater wealth and social status” and an example for that might be that the Tutsi always favored cattle ranching rather than “lower class farming of the Hutus” (2017). The fuel added to the spark was that on April 6, 1994, Habyarimana (a Hutu), the newly appointed president of Rwanda, has his plane shot down as he returns from Tanzania after he made a peace agreement, talking to the RPF (Rwandan Patriotic Front – Tutsi group). It was shot down over Kigali, not just killing him, but also the Burundian president and the French crew with him. Hutus blamed the RPF for the attack, but some others believe that the Hutus were responsible because they just wanted a reason for them to attack, it was a conspiracy planned by them to get the incentive to kill the Tutsi. However, as claimed by Michel Chossudovsky, it is believed that it was Rwanda’s current president, Paul Kagame to shoot previous president, Habyarimana’s plane down. Till this day, no one knows who shot down this plane, it still remains a mystery.France’s Involvement with the Genocide:France had been involved in the genocide with their actions and created a much stronger, and bigger impact on the result of the genocide. The French involvement in the Rwandan massacre started when the plane of the president was shot down, because there were three French men with him who died on that plane on Rwandan soil. Naturally the death of the president, Habyarimana, a respected, high and important member of society, causes the people to intervene which will ultimately lead to chaos. Not to mention the fact that he was killed with three other important representatives from France, in the hands and under the eye of others, outside their home country. After that incident, France had been trying to get involved since 1998 and get an explainable justice for these families of the dead-ones, but whatever leads they have got, it leads them to a dead end, because it was not always concrete evidence. France, initially had not acted upon this incident of their three own representatives dying because the genocide and the chaos has just started and everyone’s focus was on that already, and the families of these representatives back in France were weeping in pain but the attention of the countries were on the genocide and not them, especially France themselves. However, in 2006, according to Conor Gaffey,: “a French judge issued arrest warrants for nine high-ranking Rwandan officials close to Kagame on suspicion of plotting Habyarimana’s assassination. The move prompted Kagame to break off diplomatic ties with France, though they were later resumed in 2009.”. So as being said, France were pulled in, as if they were forced to be involved in this, whether it was during the genocide or after it. Recently, Kagame has said that: “… both France and Belgium, Rwanda’s former colonizer, had played a “direct role” in the “political preparation for the genocide.” as claimed by Conor Gaffey.Belgium’s Involvement with the Genocide:Belgium and it’s actions that it took during the genocide made it also another country that was a major factor due to it involving with the matters at hand. Belgium were known as the “African peace keeping specialist” in 1995. However, from the beginning, they knew that there were some ethnic groups and other political killings that started early on, in the year of 1995, so they were asking for assistance from other nations or countries, and demanded a stronger UNAMIR (The United Nations Assistance Mission of Rwanda) mandate, but there was no one who stepped forward to support the mission. Nevertheless, one day after the genocide had started, ten Belgian peace keeping officers were killed on April 7th. That sparked the Belgian public opinion to be heard and to have a strong voice, with the people raising and meeting at riots and community places respectively, telling the country to “the boys to be sent home” according to Dominique Maritz. “In order to save face and not to lose its status as “African peace keeping specialists”, Belgium began to petition for the complete withdrawal of UNAMIR, which was supported at the Security Council as no other state had an interest in the mission” and this has caused chaos as there was not any country or army to keep Rwanda calm and safe and organized. Belgium, alone, had the power, resources, and the capacity to stop the chaos and the killings in the genocide, however none of the other countries like the United States of America or France took the situation seriously to stop it. Therefore, Belgium did not want to use all of its power to stop it if France and the United States did not contribute with their own supplies. On the contrary, the Rwanda’s situation was hectic and violent, chaos has broken out and it is harder to stop it now than before hell broke loose. Belgium had the opportunity to end the genocide and had the capacity and supplies to do so. It also shows that the countries who have interfered made very little contributions to help because they had a very efficient rescue mission that evacuated many many foreigners after they realized how serious the genocide was. However, Belgium was only concerned about losing face and satisfying the voters at home has eventually stopped them from doing so.The United States’ Involvement with the Genocide:The United States of America had also intervened and took actions in this Rwandan genocide, and they had a major contribution and impact on the outcome of it, and possibly the process. America, with the support of the United Kingdom, Canada, and Belgium, have insisted that they would send a really small and cheap peace keeping force to Rwanda in October of 1993 to help reach an agreement between the Rwandan government and the Rwandanese Patriotic Front (RPF) to have a ceasefire and to prevent what would happen later on, meaning to stop the killings in advance. However, the meeting did not have a real agreement as they weren’t allowed to seize any guys or weapons with them when the peace keeping force goes to Rwanda, only to go out there and observe the crisis and violence of the chaotic situation. American civilians before the start of this violent genocide in Rwanda were airlifted out, this means that every single American who was on Rwandan soil at around that time was escorted out of there quickly to return back to the United States, back to their homes. On the other hand, not a single Rwandan citizen was rescued with the evacuation group at that time, leaving innocent people helpless. Also the Rwandans who had a job working in the embassies or as a consulate, being employed by the United States and the “Western Governments” themselves, as claimed by Dave Fullerton. And only four days later, Belgium has withdrawn its troops after what happened to the ones that have been captured and tortured and eventually killed. On April 19th, four days later, : “The U.S. and U.N. Security Council vote to withdraw 90% of the peace keepers in Rwanda. Human Rights Watch calls on them to use the word ‘genocide’ – a term which would have legally obliged the UN to act.” as claimed by Stephen Kinzer. After this action by the United States and the United Nation Security Council, the total number of the peace keeping troops who were left in Rwanda were only 270 units, leaving these troops vulnerable, unarmed, and letting the violence continue as they watch it with no intention of helping.As claimed by many different reliable sources, many countries were involved in this chaotic genocide, and the different actions that the countries have taken can not be gone and forgotten without saying anything about it. The roles that these countries have played or taken had a major impact, each in a specific way, but also impacted it together as a whole. As said about the event that took place in 1994, many different people had many different viewpoints about the genocide in Rwanda. For example, as claimed by Dominique Maritz, the United States were often the most blamed and responsible for not taking any action and did not intervene as they had no “national interest at stake”. This means that some believe that the United States of America played the biggest role, or had the largest impact on it because it did not intervene and take any action, except for the fact that they wanted to stay away from the killings and chaos in Rwanda in 1994. Many believe this because the United States could have helped and stopped if it had tried, but did not decide to do that.Was the International Response Justifiable?:The United Nations, with the help of the “big” individuals like the United States of America, France, and Belgium, could have helped alleviate the chaos or even if stop it if they were willing to do so. Of course, stopping the genocide would only add more fuel to the fire and create even a greater chaos and violence, since theoretically you can only stop it and diffuse the situation by “fighting fire with fire”, which is having violence being fought against violence. This would have cost the foreign countries a lot of resources, finance, supplies, and many lives of troops and soldiers from the peace keeping unit sent to Rwanda. Furthermore, many more civilians and soldiers from the Rwandan groups would also die and increase the death toll by even more. This, undoubtedly, have been a major decision taken by the United Nations, at one of thee most dangerous, yet important times. As a whole, these countries insisted that they would send a small, peace keeping unit to Rwanda to to keep the genocide at a minimum, however, the peace keeping unit that was sent had the permission to and were allowed to carry weapons and guns, as well as grenades or bombs, but they had specific orders, strict orders from their countries and the United Nations that they could not fire a bullet even if it meant whether their lives are on the line and would die at any second, but they would maintain a ceasefire in order to not make the chaos and violence greater and more hectic. This made it very hard and traumatic for the soldiers there, as they would witness horrors and gain a lot of fear and insecurity from the different Rwandan forces that were doing the shooting, bombing, and killing of others, including all citizens like the women and children. On top of that, the peace keeping unit was so small, they were outnumbered everytime they had to get in a situation, which made their case even worse and harder than if they had a large peace keeping unit who were well equipped and given the permission to shoot if needed. Some of these United Nation’s soldiers were tortured heavily by the Rwandan soldiers and extremists and eventually killed in the end. Some of them were never found again, being kidnapped by the large Rwandan forces in that country. After the hectic situation and the huge incidents, the countries sent more troops who were well trained and were well equipped but only for the evacuation of their soldiers and the United Nation’s peace keeping unit to go back to their hometowns and had refused to interfere anymore with the chaotic, nerve-wrecking genocide that is taking place in Rwanda. This had a major impact and outcome over all. The actions that those countries took, were both justifiable and unjustifiable at the same time, and it’s easy to take any side if looked at from both perspectives. For example, if your people, your soldiers are being tortured and possibly killed, and never the less, they could not be able to defend themselves or any of their fellow soldiers when put in any situation possible, it is completely understandable and justifiable to pull them out of this tormenting genocide and return them back to their families and homes on their country’s soil rather being at a strange place, making it completely understandable. These foreign countries combined had the power, finance, materials, supplies, equipment, and the number to stop the Rwandan genocide as soon as it broke loose. However, some of these countries took decisions for their own interests, as they thought it would be better if they did not take any action towards it, or if they would send a small peace keeping unit to stop the violence and try to maintain ceasefire. However, if looked at from the other perspective, it is very clear that those major countries had the power, money, resources, supplies, and the control to stop this hectic genocide way earlier and possibly before it even ever happened. So without a reason or a doubt, they should have stopped this crisis from it’s own roots and ended it in the beginning before it got harder as the days went by, being almost impossible in the end. It is probably unreasonable for them to not stop it, and let the killing continue day by day, losing people by the minute, and mostly citizens including women and young children who were considered as innocent lives. On the contrary, it is reasonable for them that they have not intervened or took part in that genocide as much as many people and countries thought or wished they would, because they have just left the horrors of what happened in Somalia previously and there were quite a few of the troops from the peace keeping unit that was sent there that were tortured inhumanely and eventually killed. Of course, these countries did not want for any of that to happen anymore, so they did not put any effort or interest into what happened in the 1994 Rwandan genocide, considered as one of the biggest mass killing genocides to ever happen.The Conclusion to the Topic:I believe, if looked at the situation in Rwanda from the countries’ points of view, that these countries that I have mentioned previously could have stopped the genocide if they cared enough to end it and prevent the huge death toll, including people of all races and innocent people like the women and children. However, they did not because it would have drained them a lot of energy and the genocide in Rwanda would have taken these countries attention and priority instead of providing for their people and keeping them safe. Also, it would have cost these countries a lot of money, resources, supplies, equipment, and lives. So it would be completely justifiable that these countries tried to help but did not expect the killings and deaths to go up by that much so they did not take the risk of losing some of their men too within the genocide.On the other hand, if looked at the genocide from the people’s point of view, the “big” countries could have spent, prepared, had a better agreement and a stronger decision together, then the death toll would have been way lower and many of the innocent people who have died in Rwanda, including the children and the women, would still be alive today. This shows the people that these “big” countries chose, intentionally, that they did not want to help because there was nothing that was of interest to them at all. 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