chain performance?Does supply chain visibility mediates the relationship between cyber supply chain security practices and cyber supply chain performance ? 1.7 Significance of Study 1.7.1 Practical Contribution Cyber threats are a global issue that governments all over the word are struggling to address and Malaysia is of no exception. The alarming fact that manufacturing is among the most targeted for cyberattacks signifies the criticality to safeguard it from catastrophic intrusion. Furthermore, the fact that Malaysia is largely dependent on the manufacturing sector as one of its key economic contributor amplifies the need to ensure manufacturing industry is adequately protected to ensure its business continuity and does not jeopardizes the country’s economy. By uncovering the baseline level of capability/maturity in Malaysia’s manufacturing industry would facilitate the identification and assessment of gaps which can be improved and protected. As this study is empirical, it is expected to make several notable contributions to practitioners and particularly policy makers, to adopt a good cyber hygiene strategy by using cyber security best practices to protect and maintain the integrity of supply chain. 1.7.2 Theoretical Contribution This study provides aims to provide a theoretical framework for cyber supply chain security practices which is novel not only from Malaysian context but in academia as a whole, given that cyber supply chain is still an ’emerging discipline’ (Bartol, 2014; Boyson, 2014). This framework lays a good foundation for manufacturing industry practitioners, academia and government in understanding the determinants role in cyber supply chain security practice adoptions as well as the contribution of a cyber supply chain security practices on the organization’s performance. Moreover, this study extends the effect of supply chain visibility from being an output of supply chain collaboration (Chen, Sohal, & Prajogo, 2013) into playing a mediating role to enhance supply chain performance. Finally, this study introduces security as one of the dimension for supply chain performance measure in addition to resilience and robustness and conjoins stakeholder theory with contingency theory to provide comprehensive determinant identification thereby contributing to theory enrichment. 1.7.3 Social Contribution The outcome of this study is expected to have positive social implications. Firstly, by adopting cyber supply chain security best practices, the organization could mitigate, if not, eradicate risks that would save it from having financial and non-financial (e.g. brand value) losses. This is turn would prevent the organization from work force managing its human resources because of losses incurred due to cyber-attacks, thereby securing the employability and preventing rise in unemployment. Secondly, by discovering the necessary tools and skills required to ensure a resilient, robust and secure supply chain, the practitioners could provide feedback to the government and educational institution in building academic module and workforce that the industry and nation require to tackle cybersecurity issues effectively. 1.8 Definition of Key Terms In this section, the terminologies used throughout this study will be briefly explained to guide understanding of the study. The more specific and thorough understanding will be further explained in the literature review section. 1.8.1 Cybersecurity Cybersecurity is the organization and collection of resources, processes, and structures used to protect cyberspace and cyberspace-enabled systems from occurrences that misalign de jure from de facto property rights.(Craigen, Diakun-Thibault, & Purse, 2014) 1.8.2 Cyber Supply Chain A cyber supply chain (CSC) is a supply chain enhanced by cyber-based technologies (e.g. IT) that provides tremendous advances in efficiency and effectiveness (Linton, Boyson, & Aje, 2014) 1.8.3 Supply Chain Visibility The extent to which actors within a supply chain have access to or share information which they consider as key or useful to their operations and which they consider will be of mutual benefit (Barratt & Oke, 2007) 1.8.4 Resilient The ability of a supply chain to return to normal operating performance, within an acceptable period of time, after being disturbed (Brandon-Jones et al., 2014) 1.8.5 Robust The ability of the supply chain to maintain its function despite internal or external disruptions (Brandon-Jones et al., 2014) 1.9 Structure of Thesis This study has been structured as following: Chapter One, provides an overview and introduction of this study. Chapter Two provides and in-depth literature review past studies on each key variables that forms the foundation of the theoretical framework and enables hypotheses development. Chapter Three follows next as an introduction to research process and guidelines on how to conduct this study. 1.10 Summary This chapter serve as introduction to the study that will be conducted. It introduces the concept of risk in cyber supply chain, particularly in manufacturing context, and highlights the infancy state of the cyber supply chain discipline that warrants an empirical study. Further information and knowledge regarding the background of the study, the focus of the study and direction of this study will be presented in Chapter Two.