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are recent facts on teacher centred and
student centred teaching methods on varying physiological expects  most teachers do not have access to them.

Genesee, F. (1994) in the study titled Teaching Content
through a Second Language suggested that the second language teacher need to
think and prepare the materials they will use for instruction. They learn
through a second language and must add special criteria for selecting materials
such as visuals, print and non-print media. However, commercially produced
materials target native speakers .It can be an advantage and disadvantage.
Teachers must decide whether to adapt existing materials or develop their own.
The developed of information technology in all curriculums studies, therefore
teacher need to try and use technology for their teaching.

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Lakshmi, S. Peer, J. (2009) carried out the multimodal
features of technology which provides a rich learning experience for the
students in the  language lessons
especially in the second language classes where the students need effective
teaching materials to understand the lessons/language. Language is one that
tells about our experiences about the world around us and within us. Teaching
module is important teaching material. Chung-Chi Lin and Wei-Lung Wang, (2015)
conducted an analysis on the value of teaching material. The current design of
teaching plans and activities in textbooks has some difficulties to use.  Using the teaching modules teachers can go
for more activities and it is very useful for the students who work
brilliantly. The Modules can provide increased student’s interest in learning
and their understanding of the relevant concepts and principles, by guiding
them to explore the theories. Further the study of Sam Mohan Lal. (2003) focuses
on Language as an art and it need more artistically material. The second
language teaching is much more complicated and needs more artistic trained hands
as the material producers and produce language instructors. Unless there is one
to one correspondence and coordination between the material producer,
instructional material, teaching methodology coupled with the simulations
motivation of the language students and their strategies, the language teaching
techniques and materials can never achieve the goal of fulfilling the task of
the teacher. Agreeing with this study the Ravindran (2002) explained the
second language teachers of Singapore previously use traditional teaching
methods and it’s not use to increase the quantity of Tamil known population.
Student expects more advanced methods. Using the module teachers can easily
connect text book with technology.

Sri Lankan present president (S.Maithripala
2016) request from the Tamil experts in the Tamil language day award ceremony
speech to make arrangements to provide and enhance the second language
abilities among student.

The researcher finds less articles and
research paper regarding this topic since Sri Lanka is going through post war
and the Government and many other agencies are working in maintaining peace and
reconciliation in Sri Lanka among various ethnic groups. Therefore, the
Government of Sri Lanka asked its citizen to maintain peace and harmony by
respecting each other’s language. Hence, they also encourage researchers to
develop tools and come up with different innovative method to help students
learn their second language in an effective manner .Therefore the researcher is
trying to fill this gap through this research.

From the above literature the researcher
described the value of learning of second language Tamil especially in
maintaining peace and harmony in the country. However, it was also found that
Tamil speaking population has not increased as per the explanation of the
Government. (Perera.S, De silva, Rajapaksha.W,Smith.A,Chandran.N.,
Medawattegedara, V., Mohamed
Abdullah, M., Premarathna, A., Yogaraja, S.J ).It also found that Poor teaching
method lead to poor achievement among the student.

The researcher also found that the teaching materials are very important to help
students improve their attitude and achievement in Tamil but there is no
suitable teaching material developed to help teachers improve for second
language teachers in Sri Lanka. (Perera .M,Gamage.V, Genesee. F,Lakshmi, S. Peer.J, Sam Mohan Lal). Therefore,
the researcher is trying to help teachers improve their teaching and make their
work much easier by developing a set of modules to teach second language Tamil.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter
3

Research
Methodology

The
research methodology is an approach to systematically resolve the research
problem and work plan of research. In this chapter the researcher describes
about operational definitions of the research, design of the study, tools and
statistical technique relevant for the solution of the problems.

3.1.
Statement of problems

Development
of teaching modules for teachers to teach Tamil as a second language in grade
six in Sinhala medium school, Sri Lanka.

3.2. Methods of study

The present study was conducted at two levels.
The first level focused on studying the grade six second language Tamil text
book in Sinhala medium school, Sri Lanka and preparing the teaching module to
help teachers to teach the content. The module validated by the experts.

The second level thirty teachers undergoing
training at the institute of national education Sri Lanka were trained by the
teachers. The training of the teaching module to teach Tamil as second language
in grade six among Sinhala teachers evaluated.

Pilot study to evaluate the introduction and utility
of the DVD was conducted Gampha in district, five teachers, four school and 206
students.

 3.3.
Operational definitions

3.3.1. Teaching modules

Teaching
modules are usually conceptualized as self-contained
“units” of content or technique. The model usually
specifies one period or more in the regular class timetable. The modules are most important teaching material
of teachers.

Before developing teaching the modules, the
researcher must have detailed conversations with teachers and school-based
teams on the relevant subject area. Through a process of structured analysis,
outlined in this document, teachers will gain a better understanding of the
learning progression of each module, the content knowledge that students
comprehend, and key components of the scaffolding toward standards. This
analysis also will ensure that teachers understand the modules deeply before
making adaptations. Basically, the goal of a
module is to provide the full range of information that the teachers need to
successfully implement a teaching method. Teaching modules are offered as
“models” which have to be adapted by any given instructor who uses
them to meet the circumstances of a specific lesson. They generally include
content or activity outlines and some bibliographic resources for people who
need to acquire more knowledge before they try out the module.

In this
present study the teaching module refer to the adjectives, content, learning
methods, activity and researcher designed to provide the teachers with detailed
structured analysis to the teach Tamil as second language in Sinhala medium
school for grade six students .It comprise of Vowel, Consonant, combined
letter, Type of Nouns, Nouns, Question forms, Numbers, Singular and plural,
Verbs, Tamil Festival, A Story

The aim
of this research is development of teaching modules for second language Tamil
teachers. It describes the importance of speakers who speak Sinhala and Tamil
languages having learned each other’s language. There are a number of regional
and social dialects existing in both Tamil and Sinhala. This study involves the
methodology of content development and modules only to develop Tamil language.
It is believed that the study of this kind would facilitate the teacher’s task
of preparing teaching materials and to identify student’s difficulties in
learning a second language. Further, it will reduce the student burden of
learning a second language through a systematic and sequential process of
learning. This research study can be a source for implementing second language
Tamil at the beginner’s level.

 

 

 

3.3.2
Second Language Tamil Teachers in Sri Lanka

In Chapter two founds more information about
the many regulations and circulars about second language teaching in Sri Lanka.
According to them learning of the second national language was first introduced
in 1999 as a compulsory subject for Grades 6 – 9. In 2001, it became an additional
subject for the GCE OL (Grades 10 – 11). Therefore, the two languages ought to
be taught to all children in all government schools as part of the curriculum.
But this is not the case because of the shortage of teachers trained to teach
the subjects.  

All
National Colleges of Education (NCOE) also teach the second national language
as a compulsory component to all students-teachers, but only a very small
number of teachers are trained to teach it as a second language. Training in
second national language teaching in the NCOEs began in 2006 and of the batch
that completed in 2009 and were ready to commence teaching in 2010, only 19
teachers were trained to teach Tamil as a second language, and 24 teachers were
trained to teach Sinhala as a second language. 
There are Advanced Level qualified persons available, but they cannot be
recruited as cadre positions are not available.

In the
present study, second language Tamil teachers refer to undergoing learning at
the national institute of education. (NIE)

3.3.3
Sinhala Medium Schools in Sri Lanka

Most of the schools in Sri
Lanka are maintained by the government as a part of the free education.
Currently there are 9,994 government schools with a student population of 3.8
million and 212,441 teachers, with the establishment of the provincial council
system in the 1980s the central government handed control of most schools to
local governments. Medium of introduction Table 4 describe the number of schools
according to educational medium. 

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