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Antibiotics act a vital role in modern agriculture and livestock as well
as in poultry industries and their use has been on the rise in many developed
nations. The major uses of antibiotics in recent years is to enhance
growth performance, improve gut health, reduce sub-clinical infection,
anti-inflammatory, control diseases and support intestinal health in livestock
as well as poultry by preserving microbial populations in check resulting in
enlarged nutrient availability (Levy,
1992; Engberg et al., 2000). Twelve
classes of antimicrobials—arsenicals, polypeptides, glycolipids, tetracyclines,
elfamycins, macrolides, lincosamides, polyethers, beta-lactams, quinoxalines, streptogramins,
and sulfonamides may be used at different times in the life cycle of poultry,
cattle, and swine (Sarmah et al., 2006). The most of antibiotics used in are water-soluble which poorly absorbed
by the gut of animals, remained about 30–90% of parent compound are excreted in
urine and up to 75% in feces (Elmund et al., 1971; Alcock et al., 1999; Halling,
2001). Those secreted antibiotics spread out into environment and may cause in developing
antibiotic-resistant microbial populations (Witte, 1998). Antibiotic-resistant
bacteria of animal have been mostly presented at farm areas as well as on
animal products (i.e., meat, eggs,…) as well as cause clinical infections and
subclinical colonization in humans (Landers et al., 2012).

 

Since the early 1950s, the indiscriminate use of
antibiotics as feed additives in commercial farming may have developed
bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Concerns over the increasing incidence of
bacterial resistance to antibiotics in animal and human have caused increase
worldwide interesting in eliminating the sub-therapeutic use of antibiotics in
livestock. In addition, some groups of consumers prefer animal products as well
as poultry meat with free-antibiotics and present a restriction on the
consumption of poultry meat raised with diets containing antibiotics (Loddi et al. 2000).  In some countries (such as those
in the EU), the use of AGP has been discontinued, and some Asian countries are
beginning to follow the EU in banning AGP. All antibiotics growth promoter
(AGP) were banned by Sweden in 1986, Denmark in 1998, the European Union in
1999 (Mark Casewell et al., 2003), and South Korea in 2005 (Ministry for Food,
Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries). 

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