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Abstract.

Numbers of researchers have claimed that there is a
connection between learners’ motivation and willingness to communicate (WTC).
They declared that motivation might be possible answer to the question why some
students with minimal language knowledge seek; while others communicatively
competent learners try to evade speaking in foreign language.  This study is going to investigate the
correlation between two types of motivation intrinsic and extrinsic, and willingness
to communicate in foreign language of Turkish students learning English in
Preparatory school of Istanbul Aydin University. This research will inquire
possible interface between motive force and level of communication in class.
More specifically, will seek to learn which kind of motivation has greater
contribution to learners’ willingness to speak. This will be done by examining
the correlation of 40 students’ motivation type using Valerand et al. scale and
their alacrity to communicate in English in classroom using Macinture et al.
scale.  Identifying this relationship
will allow to recognize which kind of motivation should be increased among
students in order to get high level of willingness and may direct future
experimental researches.

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Key words: English as a foreign language (EFL),
willingness to communicate, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation.

           

Introduction.

 

 

Problem
statement.

Majority of modern teaching approaches are emphasizing
communicative competence as one of essentials of teaching. CLT approach
suggests that main aim of teacher is communicatively competent student, at the
same time proper language use is the main aim of learner. In Turkish context
though the goals of both match the result isn’t always achieved or achieved
partially. In other words some students with high proficiency level are seemed
to be avoiding language producing even in classroom which is primary
environment of practicing oral discourse. At this point both teacher and
student face the obstacle in achieving the goal of teaching/learning. Unless
teacher is not a force that can make students speak, they can overcome the
difficulty of lack of language producing by motivating students. This research
will find out the level of which type of motivation has to be increased among
students in order to increase learners WTC in class in Turkish EFL context.  

Research
significance.

Findings will help teachers to understand which type
of motivation provides better result that is higher level of willingness to
speak. Basing on the results teachers will be able to design lessons
(activities, projects, tasks) the way they are increasing needed type of motivation,
which on its turn increases speaking willingness.

 Research questions.

      The following questions will
be addressed in this study:

a)     
To
what extent does intrinsic motivation correlate with EFL willingness to
communicate?

b)     
To
what extent does extrinsic motivation correlate with EFL willingness to
communicate?

c)     
How
does this correlation reflect on speaking performance of students in Istanbul
Aydin University?

Hypothesis.

      a) (H0) There is no
statistically significant relationship between intrinsic motivation and
willingness to communicate.

          (H1) There is statistically significant relationship
between intrinsic motivation and willingness to communicate.

     b) (H0) There is no
statistically significant relationship between extrinsic motivation and
willingness to communicate.

         (H1) There is statistically significant relationship
between extrinsic motivation and willingness to communicate.

Methodology.

Participants.

40 EFL learners who enrolled intensive language
learning program in university will take part in this study. Basing on the
scores of proficiency exam provided by university authorities their level
defined as intermediate. The age of learners ranges from 20 to 23. Students who
will report about the length of studying English which does not exceed 3 years
will be more preferable for research, while learners who report about attending
any additional language courses won’t be chosen as participant. All the
participants are sharing same background and their native language is Turkish.

Materials.

To conduct the research two types of quantitative data
collection material will be used. First, the Academical Motivation Scale by
Vallerand et al. will be administered, which will find the type of motivation
learners are driven by. There are 20 items and 5 subscales measuring
amotivation, external regulation, introjected regulation, identified
regulation, and intrinsic motivation. Responses will be rated on a 5 point
Likert scale from 1 (doesn’t correspond at all) to 5 (corresponds exactly).
Second, Macinture et al. scale will be used to measure students’ willingness to
speak inside of the classroom. The scale consists of 27 items. Responses will
be rated on 5 point Likert scale from 1 (almost never willing) to 5 (almost
always willing). Both oh questionnaires will be administered in learners’ L1.

Procedure.

After receiving permission from Istanbul Aydin
University for conducting the study list of students attending preparatory
courses will be requested. First, students who don’t fit the criteria of the
length of language learning and additional language courses will be excluded by
administering short survey where they will be responsible for mentioning of
both of items. Doing so researcher will be sure that learners’ motivation or
WTC isn’t affected by other external factors. 40 students of target group who
fit these criterions will be chosen by random sampling where every 4th
learner becomes participant of research. Second, the questionnaire measuring
type of motivation will be administered to students. 30 minutes will be given
to them for completing it. After analyzing data collected by this questionnaire
students will be divided into two groups, intrinsically motivated group and
extrinsically. Third, after short period of 2 days second questionnaire will be
administered to both of groups while this time they will be given 20 minutes to
fill their papers. After analyzing second questionnaire learners will be
divided into 2 groups again, one is with high willingness to speak and one with
low. Lastly, results of four groups that will be found by both questionnaires
will be counted using correlation formula.

Analysis.

Collected data will be analyzed in two steps. First,
SPSS will be used to get results from both of questionnaires. Second, in order
to calculate correlation of data collected by questionnaires the formula of
correlation will be applied.

Definition
of key words.

1.     
English
as a foreign language – refers to English language spoken and taught in
countries where it isn’t a local language of communication.

2.     
Willingness
to communicate – refers to desire of taking part in conversation in foreign
language, (MacInture, 2010)

3.     
Intrinsic
motivation – is motivation that is animated by personal enjoyment, interest or pleasures,
doing an activity people are led by inherent satisfaction, (Ryan & Deci,
2000)

4.       Extrinsic motivation – is motivation that’s animated
by desire of attaining specifical outcome, doing an activity for enjoyment of
the activity itself, to complete the task people are led by getting rewarded. (Ryan
& Deci, 2000).

 

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