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total of three pigs; two from Mumbai and one pig from Nagpur were found to be
heavily affected with Cysticercus
cellulosae on post-mortem examination giving a prevalence of 0.23% and
0.63% for Mumbai and Nagpur region respectively with an overall prevalence of

observations on prevalence of porcine cysticercosis for Mumbai region was in
accordance with the reports of  Mandakhalikar et al. (2009) and 
Bhadrige et al. (2014) who reported prevalence of 0.89%
and 0.57%  respectively. However the
results are on lower side as compared to those of Palampalle (2012) who
reported presence of T. solium cysts
among 1.26% pigs slaughtered in Mumbai region. This variation can be attributed
to the number of samples collected, variations in rearing and housing
management, season of study and age, sex and breed of animals during these
studies. The prevalence in the Nagpur region could not be discussed due to lack
of reports from this region.  

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            When compared with the studies
conducted in different states of India, the researchers reported the prevalence
of cysticercosis in the range of 1.75% to 9.3%; Pathak and Gaur (1989), D’Souza
et al. (1998), Sharma et al. (2000), Singh et al. (2003), Hafeez et al. (2004), Sharma et al. (2004), Raut et al. (2012), Saravanan et
al. (2014), Sahoo et al. (2016). The
variation in the prevalence might be due to several factors such as climatic
conditions, use of sanitary measures for sewage disposal, use of sanitary
latrines, pig rearing by intensive farming so that access to human night soil
and sewage is less and maintenance of proper personal hygiene.

overall prevalence of 0.3% recorded in the present study is comparatively less
as compared to the various studies conducted in various parts of world by
different researchers namely Sarti et al. (1992), Qian et al. (1998),  Phiri et al. (2002), Joshi et al. (2003), Ngowi et al. (2004), Boa et al. (2006), Praet et al.
(2010), Eshitera (2012), Komba
et al. (2013), Karshima et al (2013), Porphyre et al. (2015), Khaing et al. (2015), Schmidt et al. (2015) who reported the
prevalence in the range of 2.54 to 23.67%. The variation in the prevalence may
be due to the different factors such as disposal of human waste, pig rearing or
management system, breed of the animal, sewage disposal system and different
parameters implemented for detection of cysticercosis such as tongue palpation,
complete or partial postmortem examination.

Parasitological examination of the

to four representative cysts from each region were examined under microscope by
pressing between two clean grease free glass slides. The scolex revealed four round
suckers and the rostellum was armed with two rows of hooks i.e. small and large
hooks arranged in alternate manner (13 hooks in each row) (fig. 10) confirming
it to be Cysticercus cellulosae. Boa
et al. (1995) reported that the mean
number of hooks on the protoscolices was 27 after examining 83 pig carcasses
while Chawhan et al. (2016) reported
12-14 numbers of large and 9-12 numbers of small hooks after doing
morphological examination of 22 positive carcasses.

Gross and Histopathological

the cysts were grayish white in colour having transluscent bladder wall containing
cystic fluid. The cysts measured from 2 mm to 1 cm in diameter having a single
invaginated scolex appearing as a white spot. They were lodged in skeletal
muscles throughout the body and also embedded in various visceral organs like
heart, brain, diaphragm, liver and tongue (fig. 1, 2, 3 & 4).Histological
section of brain revealed cyst located in cerebrum. Brain revealed marked
vascular congestion of meninges, mild neuronal degeneration, perivascular
cuffing and gliosis (fig. 5 & 6). Similar changes were revealed in other
pigs with cysts. Intensity of infiltration was different. Similar changes were
observed by Kumar et al. (2013) and
Sahoo et al. (2016) who reported moderate
to marked vascular congestion of meninges, leptomeningitis, encephalitis, mild
neural degeneration, perivascular cuffing, neuronophagia and focal areas of
gliosis. The developed cyst in white matter had thick wall. Tissue surrounding
the parasite revealed infiltration of mononuclear cells. There is mild
engorgement and compression of brain parenchyma surrounding the attachment of
cyst. Varying degree of inflammatory cellular changes was observed by Borkataki
et al. (2012) and Sahoo et al. (2016).Histopathological
examination of liver showed the infiltration of mononuclear cell predominantly
eosinophils throughout the liver parenchyma. There was a thick layer of
infiltrating cells composed of mononuclear cells and neutrohphils and fibrous
connective tissue proliferation around parasitic granuloma (fig.7 & 8). Some
degree of calcification was observed in the cysts lodged in liver while
calcification was not evident in case of cysts lodged in brain, tongue,
diaphragm and skeletal muscle. Kumar et
al. (2013) observed some focal areas of calcification in the cystic wall in
brain. Borkataki et al. (2012)
experimentally induced the infection in Hampshire male piglets and after 90
DPI, the histopathology of liver of slaughtered animals revealed hydropic
degeneration of hepatic parenchyma, dilatation of sinusoids and bile duct
proliferation along with granulomatous lesions.

section of the cyst revealed membrane surrounding mouth parts and spinal canal.
The cysts were infiltered with eosinophils. Torre et al. (1998) observed the presence of host inflammatory cells in
the spinal canal of Taenia solium
cysts from naturally infected pigs. Mouth parts had clear suckers and rostellum
with hooks confirming it to be metacestode of Taenia solium (fig. 9).

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