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1.1.
Cultivativation in Nigeria

Cola
nitida and Cola accuminata are obtained from cola trees
that grow in very large quantities and are also cultivated in the equatorial
rain forest, which is the southern part of Nigeria and they also can be grown
and cultivated in the rest of West Coast of Africa.

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 There
are two common species namely

·        
Cola
accuminata

·        
Cola
nitida

Cola accuminata is a
monocotyledon plant while Cola nitida is a dicotyledon plant.

Under the cola
nitida specie there are two subspecies namely

1.      alba

This is white in color

2.      rubra

This is red in color.

 

1.2. Social Importance

     
The cola nut comes from West
Africa, and was said to originally only be owned by the gods.  However,
one of the gods left a piece behind when he visited the earth, and a man found
it. He started to eat it, but the god returned and forced the man to give it
back by pressing his finger in to the man’s throat. This is said to be the
origin of the Adam’s apple. Cola nuts
were used for magic and as aphrodisiacs and amulets. They are still
central to the religious and social worlds of many African cultures

In Nigeria, the cola nut is the most
important element of social life.

       
I.           
Cola
nuts are offered to guests in order to show respect,

    
II.           
They are given to lovers to express one’s
feelings,

  
III.           
They are exchanged in business to seal
contracts

  IV.           
They are offered to the ancestors, spirits,
and gods.

    
These nuts are consumed at all social and religious events, including
burials, sacrifices and baptisms.  All traditional and community meetings
begin with the breaking and chewing of cola nuts. They are placed at crossroads
as protective talismans, and are used as payment for divination services and as
part of divination ceremonies. During the ancient days Cola nuts were also used
as currency in Africa and Nigerians also partake in this tradition for some
time. Some myth says taking one nut with alcohol is said to prevent
drunkenness. (Keith Cleversley
2002)

    
The Cola accuminata is more popular in the Igbo and Ig-edde tribes of
the Eastern and Middle Belt regions respectively in Nigeria, while Cola nitida is preferred by the
Hausa-Fulani tribes of the Northern part of Nigeria. (J O Ibu
ET all 2009­). In Nigeria, kola is distributed along the railway line linking Lagos and
Kassa Marire market in Kano in the North. Most trade transactions are made with
retailers through verbal agreement

 

 

Figure
3. Map of Cola distribution in
Nigeria

     Breaking
of the Cola seeds is another important ceremony. Kola nuts are not only
known for its origin to many American and European soft-drinks and its chewing
by laborers to diminish hunger and fatigue, but even more for its sacred
significance in Igbo land, where they are use due to its importance and has a
cultural respect attached to it.

     The  Hausa traders 
from  Nigeria are the most popular
people known for selling the kola nuts across Nigeria , they tour  a number 
of  villages  and 
towns  buying  stocks 
of  kola which they  usually 
hire  a  storeroom 
where  they  keep 
their  produce in other to store
them and also protect the kola nut. Some problems  associated  with Local 
Markets can be : Price 
formation, storage of   the  product , increase  in demand 
and transportation cost.

 

 

 

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